Gross Motor Developmental Milestones (0-6)

 

At birth to 3 months, your child: 

  • Lifts and turns her head when on her stomach 

  • When on his back, will turn his head to hear or see something 

  • Random movements become more purposeful but are typically large, jerky movements

  • Brings hands to mouth 

  • Grasp is a reflex 

  • At 3-6 months, your child: 

  • Actively moves arm (reaches and swipes) when she sees an object of interest

  • Grasps object voluntarily 

  • Plays with his own hands and feet 

  • Watches/plays with hands/toys at the midline 

  • Transfers toys from hand to hand 

  • When on her stomach, lifts head and chest with weight on hands 

  • Holds head upright and steady 

  • Rolls from stomach to back and back to stomach 

 

At 6-9 months, your child: 

  • Uses his index finger to poke 

  • Holds an object in each hand and plays with each 

  • Transfers objects from hand to hand 

  • Pivots on stomach 

  • Pulls herself to hands and knees 

  • Sits without help, playing with toys 

 

At 9-12 months, your child: 

  • Picks things up with a pincer grasp (thumb and one finger) 

  • Drops and picks up a toy 

  • Manipulates toys with hands and fingers 

  • Uses both hands together to play 

  • Creeps (moves forward on hands and knees) 

  • Pulls to standing 

  • Stands without support 

  • Walks with support 

  • Can take independent steps 

 

At 12-18 months, your child:

  • Walks alone 

  • Begins to walk sideways and backward 

  • Comes to standing without support 

  • Crawls up and downstairs 

  • Picks up small objects 

  • Stacks one object on top of another 

  • Puts objects in and dumps them out of containers 

  • Pulls apart objects, such as pop beads 

  • Fits single puzzle pieces 

  • Scribbles 

 

At 2-3 years, your child: 

  • Walks well, runs, stops, steps up, squats down 

  • Walks on tiptoes 

  • Walks up stairs with an alternating foot pattern with one hand on the rail

  • Walks down the stairs with a same-step foot placement 

  • Jumps two inches off ground or over a 2-inch hurdle 

  • Jumps down from a step height 

  • Stands on one leg for 1-3 seconds 

  • Kicks a ball 3-6 feet 

  • Throws a ball underhand 

  • Begins learning to catch a ball from a short distance 

  • Stacks more than one object (blocks) 

  • Strings large beads 

  • Imitates drawing horizontal lines or circular scribble 

 

At 3-4 years, your child: 

  • Can run around obstacles 

  • Can stand on one foot for 3-5 seconds 

  • Stands on tiptoes for 3-5 seconds 

  • Can walk on a line without stepping off 

  • Can hop on one foot 

  • Rides a tricycle 

  • Can jump forward, down, and over objects with feet together

  • Catches a medium-sized ball 

  • Throws a ball overhand and underhand 

  • Can build a tower of 9 small cubes 

  • Copies drawing of a circle 

  • Imitates drawing a cross 

  • Cuts paper in half 

 

At 4-5 years, your child: 

  • Can stand on one foot for 10 seconds 

  • Stands on tiptoes for 8 seconds without moving their feet 

  • Hops forward on one foot for 5 hops 

  • Walks on a line backward 

  • Can complete a forward roll/somersault 

  • Gallops and skips forward 

  • Walks up and down the stairs, alternating steps, without support from the wall/rail

  • Catches a tennis ball 

  • Cuts on a line continuously

  • Copies a cross and a square 

  • Prints some letters 

 

At 5-6 years, your child: 

  • Skips, maintaining balance and rhythm 

  • Hops forward 20 feet without losing balance or letting the other foot touch the floor Jumps rope 

  • Walks on a balance beam 

  • Jumps over hurdles 10 inches high with a two-footed take-off and landing

  • Jumps sideways back and forth 

  • Cuts out simple shapes 

  • Copies a triangle and prints his/her name 

  • Colors within the lines 

  • Has a mature grasp of a pencil 

  • Handedness is well established

*Concerns warranting attention and possible referral to physical therapy 

Gaze preference to one side 

Flattening of head 

Head tilt to one side 

Not kicking feet or bearing weight through legs (0-3 months) 

Hitch crawling or scooting on bottom 

Decreased use of one side of the body 

W sitting 

Atypical movement patterns 

Toe walking